Variation rate of buildings

the calculation formula is “total buildings year 1 - total buildings year 0 * 100” and is expressed in percentages (%).

Variation rate of nuclear families

the calculation formula is “total nuclear families year 1 – total nuclear households year 0 * 100” and is expressed in percentages (%).

Variation rate of resident population

the calculation formula is “total number of individuals year 1 - total number of individuals year 0 * 100” and is expressed in percentages (%).

Vascular plants

plants with specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients to the cells, nourishing them. This system of food transport enabled these plants to develop in size and height and to increase their longevity. The first vascular plants arose in the Silurian, developed in the Devonian and in the Carboniferous some plants were over 40 m high.

Volcanic activity

geological process resulting from the internal dynamics of the Earth, frequent in the mid-ocean ridge in the ocean  and at the limits of continental plates, where the materials in its interior are launched to the surface through a volcano (elevation of land characterized by emission of lava, fluids and gases).


Volcanic rock

results from the cooling and consolidation of magma at the surface or very near the surface. Volcanic rocks generally have aphanitic or glassy texture (the crystals are not distinguishable to the naked eye). Basalts are examples of such rocks.


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