National Park

protected area of national interest where poorly altered or even unaltered by human action ecosystems exist that are representative of certain distinctive natural values. Natural and humanised landscapes, habitats of species with ecological, scientific or educational interest as well as places with geomorphological relevance (that is, related to the shape of the Earth, with the relief) or cultural significance (such as the Côa Valley Archaeological Park).

Natura 2000 Network

essential network for the conservation of Nature, established under the policies for the Conservation of Nature of the European Union which is based on two important documents: the Council Directive 79/409/EEC of 2 April, commonly known as the Birds Directive, and, the Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May, normally known as the Habitats Directive. The Natura 2000 Network is composed of areas of community importance for the conservation of certain habitats and species, in which human activities must be compatible with the preservation of those natural values, aiming at an ecological and environmental sustainable management.

Natural increase rate

the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths occurring during a given period. It is calculated by “birth rate – death rate” and is usually expressed per 1000 inhabitants, and permillage (‰) units.

Natural Monument

defined by law, it includes natural features that are unique, rare and that are important in scientific, cultural and aesthetic terms. The classification of these natural monuments aims at their defence and preservation.

Natural Park

protected area with national interest where there are natural and man modified landscapes which are example of how human action and nature can live in harmony.

Nature Reserve

protected area of national interest established that aims to protect certain animals and plant habitats. In fact, given the destruction that man has caused, some species and communities will disappear if not protected.

Neogene (23-2.5 Ma)

meaning 'newborn'. For some authors it is the last period of the Cenozoic; for others it precedes the Quaternary. The most significant event is the union of the two Americas in the Upper Pliocene. The climate became progressively colder, culminating in glaciations in the Pleistocene. Mammals and birds evolved significantly, while other life forms hardly changed. In Indonesia and the south and east of Africa the first up standing hominids appear.


Meaning “New Stone”, also known as the Age of Polished Stone. It corresponds to a Prehistoric period that began about 10 000 years ago, during which agriculture appeared. Settling due to land cultivation leads to sedentarization, to greater wealth and an increasing complexity in social organization.

Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics

standard geocode for referencing the administrative divisions of countries for statistical purposes. The standard was developed by the European Union (EU), and thus only covers the member states of the EU in detail. The NUTS divisions do not necessarily correspond to administrative divisions within countries. The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, comprising three levels, is instrumental in European Union's Structural Fund delivery mechanisms.

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